Compiled by Christopher Elliott. Last update: 13 April 2017.

In the anthology The Sixty Years’ War for the Great Lakes (2001) editor David Curtis Skaggs’ short essay “An Overview” defines the Sixty Years’ War as a six-stage sequence of conflicts fought between 1754 and 1814 by Native American nations and Europeans of British, French and other backgrounds. “Like the 30 Years’ War and the 100 Years’ War, it contains conflict, tension, peace, and renewed warfare in a variety of phases.” Usually treated separately, and known by a variety of names, the stages are most commonly called: The French and Indian War, Pontiac’s Rebellion, Lord Dunmore’s War, The American War of Independence, The War for the Old Northwest, and the War of 1812.

Skaggs cites 45 works in that essay. He doesn’t claim they are comprehensive for studying the era, or present them as any kind of syllabus, but I have made them the core of this bibliography, and my personal reading list. His cited works don’t fall neatly into his six-stage division, so I have separated them according to his notes and my best judgement.

There are twelve subdivisions to this bibliography (A-L). In each, Skaggs’ citations are listed first (where applicable) and then any supplementary titles that I want to investigate. The latter are primarily books that were released since the publication of The Sixty Years’ War or else touch on details of the era that interest me personally. I also include works of fiction set during the era, and social histories covering three subjects: The Scottish Highlanders in America, the Scotch-Irish (Ulster Protestants) of the Pennsylvania backcountry, and the early settlement of York (Toronto).


A. Causes: Works whose content spans the entire era, or else gives significant background information.

B. The French and Indian War (or ‘The Seven Years War in North America’; or ‘The War of the Conquest’): The first stage of The Sixty Years’ War. Called the first world war, the North American theater begins in 1754 with George Washington’s skirmish against French forces, and ends in 1760 with the capitulation of New France.

C. Pontiac’s Rebellion (or ‘Pontiac’s Conspiracy’; or ‘Pontiac’s War’): The second stage. Begins with the siege of British Detroit in 1763 by a Native American alliance and concludes with a series of military and diplomatic actions in 1764-5 that lead to ten years of relative peace.

D. Lord Dunmore’s War: The third stage. Skaggs doesn’t cite any specific work in relation to this conflict between Virginia and the Shawnee nation (in 1774) over territorial rights south of the Ohio River.

E. The American War of Independence (or ‘The American Revolutionary War’): The fourth stage. Skaggs’ focus is on the war’s northwestern frontier.

F. The War for the Old Northwest (Skaggs proposes ‘The Maumee-Wabash Confederacy War’): The fifth stage. Includes two significant victories by the allied Native American forces over the newly instituted US Army, but ends in their defeat at the Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794), and the subsequent Treaty of Greenville.

G. The War of 1812: The sixth stage. Begins with the United States’ declaration of war against the British and concludes with the Treaty of Ghent (1814) which confirmed the status quo ante bellum and the line-of-lakes territorial division.

H. Consequences: Works that describe the impact of the Sixty Years’ War.

I. The Highlands Connection: The Jacobite Rebellion of 1745 saw action by several officers of the British army who later served in North America (notably James Wolfe and John Forbes). Also in North America, British Highland regiments played prominent roles in several battles and many Highlanders settled in America (often through forced transport). Works are included that cover all these aspects, as well recent ethnographic pieces that compare the experience of tribal Highlanders and Native Americans.

J. The Scotch-Irish & Western Pennsylvania: Protestant immigrants from Ulster were prominent among the squatters and fringe settlers who inhabited the complex and contested frontier region of Pennsylvania. They are the main actors in two important events of the era: ‘The Paxton Boys Massacre’ and ‘The Whiskey Rebellion.’

K. Toronto during the Sixty Years War: From French outpost to British fort and naval yard, and Loyalist settlement, these works describe the early days of my hometown. Includes books on the War of 1812 that are specifically about the Battle of York.

L. Fiction & Visual Culture of the Sixty Years’ War, and their Interpretation: How have writers and artists engaged imaginatively with this era, in the intervening years?


Cited by Skaggs

Calloway, Colin G. World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1994.

Dowd, Gregory E. A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745-1815. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1992.

Eccles, W. J. The French in North America 1500-1783. 3rd ed. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2000.

Gipson, Lawrence Henry. Zones of International Friction: The Great Lakes Frontier, Canada, the West Indies, India, 1748-1754. New York: Knopf, 1942. The British Empire before the American Revolution, 5.

McConnell, Michael N. A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724-1774. Lincoln: U Nebraska P, 1992.

Richter, Daniel K. The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization.  Williamsburg, VA: Institute of Early American History and Culture; Chapel Hill: U North Carolina P, 1992.

Tanner, Helen H. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History. Newberry Library; Norman: U Oklahoma P, 1987.

White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815. 20th anniversary ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011.


Axelrod, Alan. A Savage Empire: Trappers, Traders, Tribes, and the Wars That Made America. New York: St. Martin’s, 2011.

Beatty-Medina, Charles, and Melissa Rinehart. Contested Territories: Native Americans and Non-Natives in the Lower Great Lakes, 1700-1850. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2012.

Grenier, John. The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607-1814. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005.

Richter, Daniel K., and James H. Merrell. Beyond the Covenant Chain: The Iroquois and Their Neighbors in Indian North America, 1600-1800. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1987.

Skaggs, David C., and Larry L. Nelson. The Sixty Years’ War for the Great Lakes, 1754-1814. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2001.

Steele, Ian K. Warpaths: Invasions of North America. New York: Oxford UP, 1994.


Cited by Skaggs

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. New York: Knopf, 2000.

Brecher, Frank W. Losing a Continent: France’s North American Policy, 1753-1763. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998. Contributions to the Study of World History, 62.

Buisseret, David. France in the New World: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the French Colonial Historical Society. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1998.

Gipson, Lawrence Henry. The Great War for the Empire: The Years of Defeat, 1754-1757. New York: Knopf, 1946. The British Empire before the American Revolution, 6.

—. The Great War for the Empire: The Victorious Years, 1758-1760. New York: Knopf, 1949. The British Empire before the American Revolution, 7.

Jennings, Francis. Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America. New York: Norton, 1988.

Steele, Ian K. Guerillas and Grenadiers: The Struggle for Canada, 1689-1760. Toronto: Ryerson, 1969. The Frontenac Library, 3.


Alberts, Robert C. The Most Extraordinary Adventures of Major Robert Stobo. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1965.

Anderson, Fred. A People’s Army: Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years’ War. The Institute of Early American History and Culture; Chapel Hill: U North Carolina P, 1984.

Brumwell, Stephen. Redcoats: The British Soldier and War in the Americas, 1755-1763. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.

—. White Devil: A True Story of War, Savagery, and Vengeance in Colonial America. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2004.

Eckert, Allan W. Wilderness Empire: A Narrative. Boston: Little, Brown, 1969. Winning of America, 2.

Flexner, James T. Mohawk Baronet: A Biography of Sir William Johnson. 1959. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1989.

Frégault, Guy. Canada: The War of the Conquest. Trans. Margaret M. Cameron. Toronto: Oxford UP, 1969.

Gist, Christopher. Journals. Ed. William M. Darlington. Pittsburg, 1893.

Godfrey, William G. Pursuit of Profit and Preferment in Colonial North America: John Bradstreet’s Quest. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 1982.

MacLeod, D. Peter. The Canadian Iroquois and the Seven Year’s War. Toronto: Dundurn, 1996. Canadian War Museum Historical Publication, 29.

Nester, William R. The French and Indian War and the Conquest of New France. Norman: U Oklahoma P, 2014.

Parkman, Francis. Montcalm and Wolfe. Boston, 1884. 2 vols. France and England in North America, 7.

Preston, David L. Braddock’s Defeat: The Battle of the Monongahela and the Road to Revolution. New York: Oxford UP, 2015.

Rogers, Robert. Journals. Annotated by Timothy J. Todish; illustrated by Gary S. Zaboly. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain, 2002.

Stanley, George F. G. New France: The Last Phase, 1744-1760. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968. Canadian Centenary Series, 5.

Steele, Ian K. Betrayals: Fort William Henry and the “Massacre”. New York: Oxford UP, 1990.

Ward, Matthew C. Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years’ War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754-1765. Pittsburgh: U Pittsburgh P, 2003.

Washington, George. George Washington Remembers: Reflections on the French and Indian War. Ed. Fred Anderson. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.


Cited by Skaggs

Peckham, Howard H. Pontiac and the Indian Uprising. 1947. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1994.


Dixon, David. Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac’s Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America. Norman: U Oklahoma P, 2005. Campaigns and Commanders, 7.

Dowd, Gregory E. War Under Heaven: Pontiac, the Indian Nations, and the British Empire. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 2002.

Eckert, Allan W. The Conquerors: A Narrative. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971. Winning of America, 3.

Middleton, Richard. Pontiac’s War: Its Causes, Course, and Consequences. New York: Routledge, 2007.

Nester, William R. “Haughty Conquerors”: Amherst and the Great Indian Uprising of 1763. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.

Parkman, Francis. The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War After the Conquest of Canada. Boston, 1851. 2 vols.



Brown, Meredith M. Frontiersman: Daniel Boone and the Making of America. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2008. Southern Biography Series.

David, James C. Dunmore’s New World: The Extraordinary Life of a Royal Governor in Revolutionary America–with Jacobites, Counterfeiters, Land Schemes, Shipwrecks, Scalping, Indian Politics, Runaway Slaves, and Two Illegal Royal Weddings. Charlottesville: U Virginia P, 2013. Early American Histories.

Lewis, Virgil A. History of the Battle of Point Pleasant Fought between White Men and Indians at the Mouth of the Great Kanawha River (now Point Pleasant, West Virginia) Monday, October 10th, 1774: The Chief Event of Lord Dunmore’s War. Charleston, WV, 1909.


Cited by Skaggs

Downes, Randolph C. Council Fires on the Upper Ohio: A Narrative of Indian Affairs in the Upper Ohio Valley until 1795. Pittsburgh: U Pittsburgh P, 1940.

Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. New Haven: Yale UP, 1985.

Graymont, Barbara. The Iroquois in the American Revolution. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1972.

Kelsay, Isabel T. Joseph Brant 1743-1807: Man of Two Worlds. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1984.

Morris, Richard B. The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence. 1965. Boston: Northeastern UP, 1983.

Neatby, Hilda. The Quebec Act: Protest and Policy. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall, 1972. Canadian Historical Controversies.

Sosin, Jack M. The Revolutionary Frontier, 1763-1783. 1967. Albuquerque: U New Mexico P, 1974.


Griffin, Patrick. American Leviathan: Empire, Nation, and Revolutionary Frontier. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007.

Mintz, Max M. Seeds of Empire: The American Revolutionary Conquest of the Iroquois. New York: New York UP, 1999. World of War.

Moyer, Paul B. Wild Yankees: The Struggle for Independence Along Pennsylvania’s Revolutionary Frontier. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2007.

Swiggett, Howard. War Out of Niagara: Walter Butler and the Tory Rangers. New York: Columbia UP, 1933. New York State Historical Association Series, 2.

Taylor, Alan. The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution. New York: Knopf, 2006.

Tiedemann, Joseph S., Eugene R. Fingerhut, and Robert W. Venables. The Other Loyalists: Ordinary People, Royalism, and the Revolution in the Middle Colonies, 1763-1787. Albany: SUNY P, 2009.


Cited by Skaggs

Allen, Robert S. His Majesty’s Indian Allies: British Indian Policy in the Defence of Canada, 1774-1815. Toronto: Dundurn, 1992.

Carter, Harvey L. The Life and Times of Little Turtle: First Sagamore of the Wabash. Urbana: U Illinois P, 1987.

Horsman, Reginald. Matthew Elliott, British Indian Agent. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1964.

Nelson, Larry L. A Man of Distinction Among Them: Alexander McKee and the Ohio Country Frontier, 1754-1799. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1999.

Nelson, Paul D. Anthony Wayne, Soldier of the Early Republic. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1985.

Sugden, John. Tecumseh: A Life. New York: Holt, 1997.

Wallace, Anthony F. C., and Sheila C. Steen. The Death and Rebirth of the Seneca. New York: Knopf, 1969.


Barr, Daniel P. The Boundaries between Us: Natives and Newcomers Along the Frontiers of the Old Northwest Territory, 1750-1850. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 2006.

Butts, Edward. Simon Girty: Wilderness Warrior. Toronto: Dundurn, 2011. A Quest Biography.

Calloway, Colin G. The Victory with No Name: The Native American Defeat of the First American Army. New York: Oxford UP, 2014.

Eckert, Allan W. The Wilderness War. Boston: Little, Brown, 1978. Winning of America, 4.

Heath, William. William Wells and the Struggle for the Old Northwest. Norman: U Oklahoma P, 2015.

Hogeland, William. Autumn of the Black Snake: The Creation of the U.S. Army and the Invasion That Opened the West. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2017.

Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1996. History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier.

Sugden, John. Blue Jacket: Warrior of the Shawnees. Lincoln: U Nebraska P, 2000. American Indian Lives.

G. THE WAR OF 1812

Cited by Skaggs

Antal, Sandy. A Wampum Denied: Procter’s War of 1812. Ottawa: Carleton UP, 1997.

Edmunds, R. David. The Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln: U Nebraska P, 1983.

—. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. Boston: Little Brown, 1984. Library of American Biography.

Graves, Donald E. The Battle of Lundy’s Lane: On the Niagara in 1814. Baltimore: Nautical & Aviation Pub, 1993.

Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Sea Power in Its Relation to the War of 1812. 1903. Boston: Little, Brown, 1919. 2 vols.

Malcomson, Robert. Lords of the Lake: The Naval War on Lake Ontario, 1812-1814. Annapolis: Naval Inst P, 1998.

Quimby, Robert S. The U.S. Army in the War of 1812: An Operational and Command Study. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1997. 2 vols.

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Naval War of 1812: The History of the United States Navy During the Last War with Great Britain: To Which Is Appended an Account of the Battle of New Orleans. 1882. Annapolis: Naval Inst P, 1987.

Skaggs, David C., and Gerard T. Altoff. A Signal Victory: The Lake Erie Campaign, 1812-1813. Annapolis: Naval Inst P, 1997.

Stanley, George F. G. The War of 1812: Land Operations. Ottawa: National Museum of Man; Toronto: Macmillan, 1983. Historical Publication, 18.

Turner, Wesley B. British Generals in the War of 1812: High Command in the Canadas. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1999.

Wilder, Patrick. Battle of Sackett’s Harbour: 1813. Baltimore: Nautical & Aviation Pub, 1994.


Benn, Carl. The Iroquois in the War of 1812. Toronto: U Toronto P, 1998.

—. Native Memoirs from the War of 1812: Black Hawk and William Apess. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2014.

Gilpin, Alec R. The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1958.

McKenzie, Ruth. Laura Secord: The Legend and the Lady. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1971.

Mason, Philip P. After Tippecanoe: Some Aspects of the War of 1812. Rev. ed. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2011.

Skaggs, David C. William Henry Harrison and the Conquest of the Ohio Country: Frontier Fighting in the War of 1812. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2014.


Cited by Skaggs

Errington, Elizabeth J. The Lion, the Eagle, and Upper Canada: A Developing Colonial Ideology. 2nd ed. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 2012.

Nichols, Roger L. Indians in the United States and Canada: A Comparative History. Lincoln: U Nebraska P, 1998.

Wise, Sidney F. “Upper Canada and the Conservative Tradition” in Profiles of a Province: Studies in the History of Ontario. Ed. Edith G. Firth. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1967.


Carroll, Francis M. A Good and Wise Measure: The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary, 1783-1842. Toronto: U Toronto P, 2001.

Hele, Karl S. Lines Drawn Upon the Water: First Nations and the Great Lakes Borders and Borderlands. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 2007.


Calloway, Colin G. White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America. New York: Oxford UP, 2008.

Dziennik, Matthew P. The Fatal Land: War, Empire, and the Highland Soldier in British America. New Haven: Yale UP, 2015. Lewis Walpole Series in Eighteenth-Century Culture and History.

McCulloch, Ian M. Sons of the Mountains: The Highland Regiments in the French and Indian War, 1756-1767. Toronto: Robin Brass; Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain, 2006.

MacKillop, Andrew. More Fruitful Than the Soil: Army, Empire and the Scottish Highlands, 1715-1815. East Linton, Scotland: Tuckwell, 2000.

Newton, Michael S. We’re Indians Sure Enough: The Legacy of the Scottish Highlanders in the United States. Saorsa Media, 2001.

Prebble, John. Culloden. London: Secker & Warburg, 1961.

Richards, Frederick B. The Black Watch at Ticonderoga and Major Duncan Campbell of Inverawe. 3rd ed. Glens Falls, NY: Fort Ticonderoga Library, 1920.


Baldwin, Leland D. Whiskey Rebels: The Story of a Frontier Uprising. Rev. ed. Pittsburgh: U Pittsburgh P, 1992.

Barr, Daniel P. A Colony Sprung from Hell: Pittsburgh and the Struggle for Authority on the Western Pennsylvania Frontier, 1744-1794. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 2014.

Buck, Solon J., and Elizabeth H. Buck. The Planting of Civilization in Western Pennsylvania. 1939. Pittsburgh: U Pittsburgh P, 1979.

Kenny, Kevin. Peaceable Kingdom Lost: The Paxton Boys and the Destruction of William Penn’s Holy Experiment. New York: Oxford UP, 2009.

Pencak, William, and Daniel K. Richter. Friends and Enemies in Penn’s Woods: Indians, Colonists, and the Racial Construction of Pennsylvania. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 2004.

Seaver, James E. A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison: Who Was Taken by the Indians, in the Year 1755, When Only About Twelve Years of Age, and Has Continued to Reside Amongst Them to the Present Time. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1995. The Iroquois and their Neighbors.

Slaughter, Thomas P. The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.

Smolenski, John. Friends and Strangers: The Making of a Creole Culture in Colonial Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: U Pennsylvania P, 2010. Early American Studies.

Spero, Patrick. Frontier Country: The Politics of War in Early Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: U Pennsylvania P, 2016. Early American Studies.

Steele, Ian K. Setting All the Captives Free: Capture, Adjustment, and Recollection in Allegheny Country. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 2013. McGill-Queen’s Native and Northern Studies Series, 71.

K. Toronto during the Sixty Years’ War

Andre, John. Infant Toronto as Simcoe’s Folly. Toronto: Centennial Press, 1971.

Benn, Carl. The Battle of York. Belleville, ON: Mika, 1984.

—. Historic Fort York, 1793-1993. Toronto: Natural Heritage/Natural History, 1993.

—. The Life and Times of the Anglican Church in Toronto, 1793-1839. Toronto: St Thomas’s Anglican Church, 2010.

Compton-Smith, C.  J. The Capture of York, 1813: A Collection of Documents and Records, together with Factual Reports, Dealing with the Events of the Day. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

Cumberland, Barlow. The Battle of York: An Account of the Eight Hours’ Battle from the Humber Bay to the Old Fort in the Defence of York on 27th April, 1813. Toronto: Briggs, 1913. Centennial Series, War of 1812-1815.

Firth, Edith G. The Town of York, 1793-1815: A Collection of Documents of Early Toronto. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1962.

Malcomson, Robert. Capital in Flames: The American Attack on York, 1813. Montréal: Robin Brass; Annapolis: Naval Inst P, 2008.

Quaife, Milo M. The Yankees Capture York. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1955.

Robinson, Percy J. Toronto During the French Régime: A History of the Toronto Region from Brûlé to Simcoe, 1615-1793. 2nd ed. Toronto: U Toronto P, 1965.

Simcoe, Elizabeth. Diary. Ed. Mary Quayle Innis. Toronto: Dundurn, 2008. Voyageur Classics.

Stacey, C. P. The Battle of Little York. Toronto: Toronto Historical Board, 1977.

Strachan, John. The Letter Book ; 1812-1934. Toronto: Ontario historical Society, 1946.

l. Fiction & Visual Culture of the Sixty Years’ War, and their Interpretation

Brackenridge, Hugh Henry. Modern Chivalry. 1792-1815. Ed. Ed White. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2009.

Brandis, Marianne. Fire Ship. Erin, ON: Porcupine’s Quill, 1992.

Chalmers, Harvey. Drums against Frontenac. New York: R.R. Smith, 1949.

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Pioneers. 1823.

—. The Last of the Mohicans. 1826.

—. The Prairie. 1827.

—. The Pathfinder. 1840.

—. The Deerslayer. 1841.

Elias, Peter Douglas. Another Forgotten War: 1811-1812. 2011. Kobo ebook.

Jewett, Sarah Orne. The Tory Lover. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1901.

Richardson, John. Wacousta; or, the Prophecy: A Tale of the Canadas. London, 1839.

Thackeray, William M. The Virginians: A Tale of the Last Century. London, 1863.